Personalized agreement – a new contractual model


In consumer e-commerce, personalization of the content of an agreement in accordance with expectations, traits and circumstances of a particular person has become a common practice. In order to adequately address this new phenomenon, it is crucial to determine how the legal system should perceive consumer contracts concluded via the Internet with the use of personalization tools. For this purpose, the European Union perspective is adopted. Peculiarities of personalized agreements are varied. The entrepreneur has access to a vast amount of data on consumers and he is able to use it to his benefit by personalizing means, time and content of communication sent while forming a contractual bond with the consumer. In contrast, the consumer is not familiar with the scope and the utility of the data that the trader is processing. Also, personalization practices are aimed at inspiring trust in the trader, which, in sum, make the consumer especially exposed to manipulation. As a result, the asymmetry between the parties deepens. Personalization can be, therefore, perceived as a marketing technique. However, due to its impact on the contractual relationship, it is justified to explore also whether it could be treated as a new type of contract or an emerging contractual model. The analysis suggests that the phenomenon should be considered as another step in the evolution of consumer contracts — personalization, to a certain extent, supersedes standardization of mass turnover in the online environment. The following article is a part of the research conducted within the framework of project no. 2016/21/N/HS5/00167, ‘Personalized agreements in the light of civil law’, grant financed by the Polish National Science Centre.


Данные скачивания пока недоступны.



Barnhizer, Daniel D. 2005. “Inequality of Bargaining Power”. University of Colorado Law Review 76: 139–241.

Bańczyk, Wojciech. 2017. Alokacja ryzyka zmiany okoliczności podczas wykonywania długoterminowej umowy o dzieło i o roboty budowlane — w kierunku umowy rozwijającej się. Kraków, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.

Bańczyk, Wojciech. 2016. “Sposoby ochrony ‘słabszej strony’ umowy zawieranej za pomocą wzorca w polskim prawie zobowiązań XX i XXI wieku”. Przegląd Prawniczy Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego 1: 165–210.

Bar-Gill, Oren. 2018. “Algorithmic Price Discrimination When Demand Is a Function of Both Preferences and (Mis)perceptions”. The University of Chicago Law Review 86: 217–254.

Bosco, Francesca, Cafiero G. D’Angelo, Elena Ferraris, Valeria Y. Suloyeva. 2013. “Defining Profiling”. SSRN. Working paper no. 9. Accessed August 22, 2020.

Bourreau, Marc, Alexandre de Streel. 2018. “The Regulation of Personalized Pricing in the Digital Era”. O. N. E. Accessed August 22, 2020.

Busch, Christoph. 2016. “The Future of Pre-Contractual Information Duties: From Behavioural Insights to Big Data”. Research Handbook on EU Consumer and Contract Law, ed. by Christian Twigg-Flesner, 221–240. Cheltenham, Northampton, Edward Elgar Publ.

Busch, Christoph. 2019. “Implementing Personalized Law: Personalized Disclosures in Consumer Law and Data Privacy Law”. University of Chicago Law Review 86: 309–331.

Calo, Ryan. 2014. “Digital Market Manipulation”. The George Washington Law Review 82: 995–1051.

Furner, Christopher P., Catharina M. Serino, Cindi Smatt. 2005. “Making it personal: How personalization affects trust over time”. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Washington.

Graaf, Tycho de. 2019. “Consequences of Nullifying an Agreement on Account of Personalised Pricing”. Journal of European Consumer and Market Law 8 (5): 184–193.

Helberger, Natali. 2016. “Profiling and targeting consumers in the Internet of Things — A new challenge for consumer law”. Digital Revolution. Challenges for Contract Law in Practice, eds Reinar Schulze, Dirk Staudenmayer, 135–161. Nomos Verlag, Baden-Baden.

Hellwege, Phillip. 2018. “Right of Withdrawal in Distance and Off-Premises Contracts”. Commentaries on European contract laws, eds Nils Jansen, Reinhard Zimmermann, 505–585. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Kaptein, Maurits, Petri Parvinen. 2015. “Advancing E-Commerce Personalization: Process Framework and Case Study”. International Journal of Electronic Commerce 19 (3): 7–33.

Komiak, Sherrie, Izak Benbasat. 2006. “The Effects of Personalization and Familiarity on Trust and Adoption of Recommendation Agents”. MIS Quarterly 30 (4): 941–960.

Łętowska, Ewa. 1974. “Problematyka ogólnych warunków i wzorów umów w świetle poglądów doktryny obcej”. Studia Prawnicze 3: 123–177.

Maggiolino, Mariateresa. 2017. “Personalized prices in European competition law”. Bocconi Legal Studies Research Paper, Res No. 2984840. Accessed February, 10 2020.

Mattioli, Dana. 2012. “On Orbitz, Mac Users Steered to Pricier Hotels”. The Wall Street Journal. Accessed February 13, 2020.

McAllister, Daniel J. 1995. “Affect- and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations”. Academy of Management Journal 38 (1): 24–59.

Mularski, Krzysztof, Zbigniew Radwański. 2019. “Zagadnienia ogólne czynności prawnych”. Zbigniew Radwański, Andrzej Olejniczak. Prawo cywilne — część ogólna, 5–60. Warszawa, C. H. Beck.

Południak-Gierz, Katarzyna. 2018. “Personalization of information duties. Challenges for big data approach”. European Review of Private Law 26 (3): 297–309.

Południak-Gierz, Katarzyna. 2019. “Consequences of the Use of Personalization Algorithms in Shaping an Offer — A Private Law Perspective”. Masaryk University Journal of Law and Technology 2: 161–187.

Południak-Gierz, Katarzyna. 2020a. “Sanctions for lack of fulfilment of obligation duties. Searching for an adequate regulatory model for personalized agreements”. European Review of Private Law 28 (4): 817–839.

Południak-Gierz, Katarzyna. 2020b. Wady oświadczenia woli w umowach zawieranych na internetowym rynku konsumenckim. Warszawa, C. H. Beck.

Pyrzyńska, Agnieszka. 2019. “Kommertarz Art. 384”. Kodeks cywilny. Tom II. Komentarz. Art. 353–626, ed. by Maciej Gutowski. Warszawa, C. H. Beck.

Rezaei, Sajad. 2017. Apps Management and E-Commerce Transactions in Real-Time. Malaysia, IGI-Global AEBR.

Saporito, Patricia L. 2014. Applied Insurance Analytics: A Framework for Driving More Value from Data Assets, Technologies, and Tools. Upper Saddle River, FT Press Analytics.

Sayedi, Amin. 2017. “Real-Time Bidding in Online Display Advertising”. SSRN. Accessed February 10, 2020.

Schulze, Reinar, Fryderyk Zoll. 2018. European Contract Law. München, C. H. Beck; Oxford, Hart; Baden-Baden, Nomos.

Stoecklin-Serino, Catharina, David Paradice. 2009. “An Examination of the Impacts of Brand Equity, Security, and Personalization on Trust Processes in an E Commerce Environment”. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing 21: 1–36.

Szostak, Ryszard. 2012. “Problem systematyki umów obligacyjnych w nowym kodeksie cywilnym”. Transformacje Prawa Prywatnego 1: 61–75.

Tereszkiewicz, Piotr. 2015. Obowiązki informacyjne w umowach o usługi finansowe. Warszawa, Wolters Kluwer Polska.

Thal, Spencer Nathan. 1988. “The inequality of bargaining power doctrine: the problem of defining contractual unfairness”. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 8 (1): 17–33.

Townley, Christopher, Eric Morrison, Karen Yeung. 2017. “Big Data and Personalized Price Discrimination in EU Competition Law”. Yearbook of European Law 36: 683–748.

Twigg-Flesner, Christian. 2010. “Goods Must Be in Conformity with the Contract”. Cases, materials and Text on Consumer Law, eds Hans-W. Micklitz, Jules Stuyck, Evelyne Terryn, 320–336. Oxford, Portland, Oregon, Hart Publishing.

Wagner, Gerhard, Eidenmüller Horst. 2019. “Down by Algorithms? Siphoning Rents, Exploiting Biases, and Shaping Preferences: Regulating the Dark Side of Personalized Transactions”. The University of Chicago Law Review 86: 581–609.

Węgrzynowski, Łukasz. 2011. Ekwiwalentność świadczeń w umowie wzajemnej. Warszawa, Wolters Kluwer.

Zoll, Fryderyk. 2012. “Problem negatywnego ustalenia cech rzeczy sprzedanej — w oczekiwaniu na wspólne europejskie prawo sprzedaży”. Transformacje Prawa Prywatnego 2: 167–174.

Zuiderveen Borgesius, Federik, Joost Poort. 2017. “Online Price Discrimination and EU Data Privacy Law”. Journal of Consumer Policy 40 (3): 347–366.

Как цитировать
Południak-Gierz, K. (2021). Personalized agreement – a new contractual model. Вестник Санкт-Петербургского университета. Право, 11(4), 1009-1021.
Зарубежное право